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Download references. We thank two anonymous reviewers for comments on an early version of this manusciript, and many speleologists for helping us during fieldwork. This study was funded by Univ. Conceived and designed the study: G. Performed the field work: G. Analysed the data: G. Prepared the figures: G. Correspondence to Gentile Francesco Ficetola.
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Subjects Biogeography Evolution Macroecology. Abstract The extent to which closely related species share similar niches remains highly debated. Figure 1. Full size image. Table 1 Caves and cave sectors sampled for the microhabitat analyses, and presence localities used for the bioclimatic analyses. Full size table. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Table 2 Relationships between the occurrence of eight species of salamanders in underground sectors and microhabitat features. Figure 5. Discussion Both microhabitat i. Methods Study system In summer, underground environments show a continuous microclimatic gradient: the superficial sectors have conditions similar to the outdoor ones light, high temperature, low humidity.
Ethics statement Samples were collected in accordance with regulations for the protection of terrestrial wild animals authorization by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, prot. Surveys and data collection To measure species distribution and habitat at fine spatial scale microhabitat we surveyed caves in Mediterranean Italy and France, widely covering the range of all European Hydromantes species Fig. Microhabitat preferences of species We used generalized linear mixed models GLMMs with binomial error to assess the within-cave relationships between each species and the features of cave sectors.
Niche overlap and equivalency among species We used an approach based on Principal Component Analyses of environmental variables PCA-env to perform multivariate comparisons of niche overlap between pairs of species following Relationships between microhabitat, bioclimatic niche and evolutionary history Genetic distance between species pairs was calculated on the basis of three mitochondrial 12S, 16S and cyt- b and two nuclear RAG-1 and BNDF genes, amplified by van der Meijden et al. References 1. Article PubMed Google Scholar 2. Article Google Scholar 3. Article Google Scholar 4.
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Behnaz Hosseini-Tabesh 1 ,. Ahad Sahragard 1 ,. Azadeh Karimi-Malati 1. Box , Iran. Life table studies are essential tools for understanding population dynamics. The life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover Hemiptera: Aphididae feeding on the host plant, Hibiscus syriacus L. The data were analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The life table studies were started with 50 and 40 nymphs in laboratory and field conditions, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, A. When reared under field conditions, A. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the mean generation time T days between field and laboratory conditions.
In the present study, the results clearly showed that life table parameters of A. These results could help us to understand the A. The results could also help us make better management decisions for economically important crops. Afshari A. Demographic parameters of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Homoptera:Aphididae , population in cotton field of Gorgan. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 26 2 : 23— Aldyhim Y. Influence of temperature and day length on population development of Aphis gossypii on Cucumber pepo.
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Molecular Ecology 18 10 : — Chi H. Life-table analysis incorporating both sexes and variable development rate among individuals. Environmental Entomology 17 1 : 26— Timing of control based on the stage structure of pest population: a simulation approach. Journal of Economy Entomology 83 4 : — Two new methods for the study of insect population ecology.
Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica 24 2 : — Age-stage, two-sex life tables of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead Hymenoptera: Braconidae and its host Myzus persicae Sulzer Homoptera: Aphididae with mathematical proof of the relationship between female fecundity and the net reproductive rate.
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Environmental Entomology 35 1 : 10— Efron B. An introduction to the bootstrap. Engel R. Alternative prey and other food resources of the phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten.