Ronald A. The new edition of DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing focuses on updates and more coverage of non-metallic materials, sustainability, lean manufacturing, rapid prototyping and revised end of chapter and case study content. It emphasizes application and design, present mathematical models and analytic equations sparingly and uses case studies to highlight re The new edition of DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing focuses on updates and more coverage of non-metallic materials, sustainability, lean manufacturing, rapid prototyping and revised end of chapter and case study content.
It emphasizes application and design, present mathematical models and analytic equations sparingly and uses case studies to highlight real world examples of manufacturing. Get A Copy.
Hardcover , pages. Published August 30th by Wiley first published March 9th More Details Other Editions 1. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. It is further fitting that his name continue to appear on this 50th anniversary edition and any subsequent editions. Paul DeGarmo wanted a book that explained to engineers how the things they designed are made.
DeGarmos Materials and Processes in Manufacturing is still written providing a broad, basic introduction to the fundamentals of manufacturing. The book begins with a survey of engineering materials, the stuff that manufacturing begins with, and seeks to provide the basic information that can be used to match the properties of a material to the service requirements of a component. A variety of engineering materials are presented, along with their properties and means of modifying them.
The materials section can be used in curricula that lack preparatory courses in metallurgy, materials science, or strength of materials, or where the student has not yet been exposed to those topics. In addition, various chapters in this section can be used as supplements to a basic materials course, providing additional information on topics such as heat treatment, plastics, composites, and material selection. Following the materials chapters, measurement and nondestructive testing are introduced with a manufacturing perspective.
Then chapters on casting, forming, powder metallurgy, material removal, and joining are all developed as families of manufacturing processes. Each section begins with a presentation of the fundamentals on which those processes are based. This is followed by a discussion of the various process alternatives, which can be selected to operate individually or be combined into an integrated system. In the last two chapters there is some in depth material on surface engineering and quality control.
Engineers need to know how to determine process capability and if they get involved in six sigma projects, to know what sigma really measures. There is also introductory material on surface integrity, since so many processes produce the finished surface and residual stresses in the components.
New chapter on measurement, inspection and testing New chapter on electronic processes New examples of basic calculations in machining chapters NC chapter reorganized with more examples Reclassification of metal deformation processes into bulk and sheet Expanded coverage of new and emerging technology, such as friction-stir welding Expanded coverage of polymers; ceramic materials and composites, and the processes that are unique to those materials.
Throughout the book, case studies have been designed to make students aware of the great importance of properly coordinating design, material selection, and manufacturing to produce a satisfactory and reliable product. The text is intended for use by engineering mechanical, manufacturing, and industrial and engineering technology students, in both two- and four-year undergraduate degree programs. In addition, the book is also used by engineers and technologists in other disciplines concerned with design and manufacturing such as aerospace and electronics.
Factory personnel will find this book to be a valuable reference that concisely presents the various production alternatives and the advantages and limitations of each. Additional or more in-depth information on specific materials or processes can be found in the various references posted on the internet along with chapters on rapid prototyping, automation and enterprise systems.
Also available on the website is a set of powerpoint lecture slides created by Philip Appel at Gonzaga University. Three additional chapters, as identified in the table of contents, are available on the book website. The registration card attached on the inside front cover provides information on how to access and download this material.
If the registration card is missing, access can be purchased directly on the website www. The text has become known for the large number of clear and helpful photos and illustrations that have been graciously provided by a variety of sources. In some cases, equipment is photographed or depicted without safety guards, so as to show important details, and personnel are not wearing certain items of safety apparel that would be worn during normal operation. Over the many editions, there have been hundreds of reviewers, faculty, and students who have made suggestions and corrections to the text.
We continue to be grateful for the time and interest that they have put into this book. In this edition we benefited from the comments of the following reviewers: J. Don Book, Pittsburg State University;. Handy, Purdue University; T. Sharma, Bucknell University; Bharat S. The authors would also like to acknowledge the contributions of Dr. Elliot Stern for the dynamics of machining section in Chapter Brian Paul for his work on the rapid prototyping and electronics chapters, and Dr.
Barney Klamecki for his help with the 9th edition. As always, our wives have played a major role in preparing the manuscript. Carol Black and Barb Kohser have endured being textbook widows during the time when the last four editions were written. Not only did they provide loving support, but Carol also provided hours of expert proofreading, typing, and editing as the manuscript was prepared. Finally special thanks to our acquisitions editor, Joseph P.
Hayton, for putting up with two procrastinating professors, who tried both his patience and his abilities as he coordinated all the various activities required to produce this text as scheduled. We also thank Suzanne Ingrao and Sandra Dumas for all their help in bringing the 10th edition to reality.
Black received his Ph. J loves to write music mostly down home country and poetry. Co-authoring with Ron Kohser makes this book a success, just as picking his doubles partner in tennis has given him the 1 doubles ranking for 65 year olds in the State of Alabama. Ron Kohser received his Ph. While maintaining a full commitment to classroom instruction, he has served as department chair and Associate Dean for Undergraduate Instruction. Chapter 37 Manufacturing Automation web-based chapter www.
In most cases, materials are utilized in the form of manufactured goods. Manufacturing and assembly represent the organized activities that convert raw materials into salable goods. The manufactured goods are typically divided into two classes: producer goods and consumer goods. Producer goods are those goods manufactured for other companies to use to manufacture either producer or consumer goods.
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Consumer goods are those purchased directly by the consumer or the general public. For example, someone has to build the machine tool a lathe that produces using machining processes the large rolls that are sold to the rolling mill factory to be used to roll the sheets of steel that are then formed using dies to become the body panels of your car. Similarly, many service industries depend heavily on the use of manufactured products, just as the agricultural industry is heavily dependent on the use of large farming machines for efficient production.
Converting materials from one form to another adds value to them. The more efficiently materials can be produced and converted into the desired products that function with the prescribed quality, the greater will be the companies productivity and the better will be the standard of living of the employees. The history of man has been linked to his ability to work with materials, beginning with the Stone Age and ranging through the eras of copper and bronze, the Iron Age, and recently the age of steel. While ferrous materials still dominate the manufacturing world, we are entering the age of tailor-made plastics, composite materials, and exotic alloys.
A good example of this progression is shown in Figure The goal of the manufacturer of any product or service is to continually improve. For a given product or service, this improvement process usually follows an S-shaped curve, as shown in Figure a , often called a product life-cycle curve. However, each improvement becomes progressively more difficult. For a delta gain,. Courtesy of: Bart Thomas, Michelin. Finally, the product or service enters the maturity phase, during which additional performance gains become very costly. For example, in the automobile tire industry, Figure b shows the evolution of radial tire performance from its birth in to the present.
Growth in performance is actually the superposition of many different improvements in material, processes, and design. These innovations, known as sustaining technology, serve to continually bring more value to the consumer of existing products and services. In general, sustaining manufacturing technology is the backbone of American industry and the ever-increasing productivity metric.
Although materials are no longer used only in their natural state, there is obviously an absolute limit to the amounts of many materials available here on earth. Therefore, as the variety of man-made materials continues to increase, resources must be used efficiently and recycled whenever possible. Of course, recycling only postpones the exhaustion date. Like materials, processes have also proliferated greatly in the last 40 years, with new processes being developed to handle the new materials more efficiently and with less waste.
A good example is the laser, invented around , which now finds many uses in manufacturing, measurement, inspection, heat treating, welding, and more. New developments in manufacturing technology often account for improvements in productivity. Even when the technology is proprietary, the competition often gains access to it, usually quite quickly. Starting with the product design, materials, labor, and equipment are interactive factors in manufacturing that must be combined properly integrated to achieve low cost, superior quality, and on-time delivery.
Since the selling price is determined by the customer, maintaining profit often depends on reducing manufacturing cost. In Chapter 39, a manufacturing strategy is presented that attacks the materials cost, indirect costs, and general administration costs, in addition to labor costs. The materials costs include the cost of storing and handling the materials within the plant. The strategy is called lean production. Reductions in direct labor will have only marginal effects on the total people costs. The optimal combination of factors for producing a small quantity of a given product may be very inefficient for a larger quantity of the same product.
Consequently, a systems approach, taking all the factors into account, must be used. This requires a sound and broad understanding on the part of the decision makers on the value of materials, processes, and equipment to the company, accompanied by an understanding of the manufacturing systems.
DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing
Materials and processes in manufacturing systems are what this book is all about. Manufacturing implies creating value by applying useful mental or physical labor. The manufacturing processes are collected together to form a manufacturing system MS. The manufacturing system is a complex arrangement of physical elements characterized by measurable parameters Figure The manufacturing system takes inputs and produces products for the external customer.
The entire company is often referred to as the enterprise or, in this textbook, the production system. The production system includes the manufacturing system, as shown in Figure , and services it. In this book, a production system will refer to the total company and will include within it the manufacturing system SPSs. The production system includes the manufacturing system plus all the other functional areas of the plant for information, design, analysis, and control.
These subsystems are connected by various means to each other to produce either goods or services or both. Goods refer to material things. Services are nonmaterial things that we buy to satisfy our wants, needs, or desires. Service production systems SPSs include transportation, banking, finance, savings and loan, insurance, utilities, health care, education, communication, entertainment, sporting events, and so forth.
They are useful labors that do not directly produce a product. Manufacturing has the responsibility for designing processes sequences of operations and processes and systems to create make or. FIGURE The manufacturing system converts inputs to outputs using processes to add value to the goods for the external customer.
Legend: information systems Instructions or orders Feedback Material flow External customer of goods. Recommend ch anges in desig n to improve man ufacturing Wo rk s che du les. Market information Marketing department Estimate price and volume forecasts. The functional departments are connected by formal and informal information systems designed to service the manufacturing system that produces the goods. The system must exhibit flexibility to meet customer demand volumes and mixes of products as well as changes in product design. As shown in Table , production terms have a definite rank of importance, somewhat like rank in the army.
Confusing system with section is similar to mistaking a colonel for a corporal. In either case, knowledge of rank is necessary. The terms tend to overlap because of the inconsistencies of popular usage. An obvious problem exists here in the terminology of manufacturing and production. The same term can refer to different things.
For example, drill can refer to the machine tool that does these kinds of operations; the operation itself, which can be done on many different kinds of machines; or the cutting tool, which exists in many different forms. It is therefore important to use modifiers whenever possible: Use the radial drill press to drill a hole with a 1-in. The emphasis of this book will be.
All aspects of workers, machines, and information, considered collectively, needed to manufacture parts or products; integration of all units of the system is critical. The collection of manufacturing processes and operations resulting in specific end products; an arrangement or layout of many processes, materials-handling equipment, and operators. A specific piece of equipment designed to accomplish specific processes, often called a machine tool; machine tools linked together to make a manufacturing system. A collection of operations done on machines or a collection of tasks performed by one worker at one location on the assembly line.
A specific action or treatment, often done on a machine, the collection of which makes up the job of a worker. Refers to the implements used to hold, cut, shape, or deform the work materials; called cutting tools if referring to machining; can refer to jigs and fixtures in workholding and punches and dies in metal forming. Company that makes engines, assembly plant, glassmaking factory, foundry; sometimes called the enterprise or the business.
Job sometimes called a station; a collection of tasks Operation sometimes called a process Tools or tooling. Rolling steel plates, manufacturing of automobiles, series of connected operations or processes, a job shop, a flow shop, a continuous process. Spot welding, milling machine, lathe, drill press, forge, drop hammer, die caster, punch press, grinder, etc.
Operation of machines, inspection, final assembly; e.
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Drill, ream, bend, solder, turn, face, mill extrude, inspect, load. Grinding wheel, drill bit, end milling cutter, die, mold, clamp, three-jaw chuck, fixture. In the last section of the book, an introduction to systems aspects is presented. A production system includes people, money, equipment, materials and supplies, markets, management, and the manufacturing system. In fact, all aspects of commerce manufacturing, sales, advertising, profit, and distribution are involved.
Table provides a partial list of production systems. TABLE Aerospace and airplanes Appliances Automotive cars, trucks, vans, wagons, etc. Beverages Building supplies hardware Cement and asphalt Ceramics Chemicals and allied industries Clothing garments Construction Construction materials brick, block, panels Drugs, soaps, cosmetics Electrical and microelectronics Energy power, gas, electric Engineering Equipment and machinery agricultural, construction and electrical products, electronics, household products, industrial machine tools, office equipment, computers, power generators.
Foods canned, dairy, meats, etc. Natural resources oil, coal, forest, pulp and paper Publishing and printing books, CDs, newspapers Restaurants Retail food, department stores, etc. Advertising and marketing Communication telephone, computer networks Education Entertainment radio, TV, movies, plays Equipment and furniture rental Financial banks, investment companies, loan companies Health care Insurance Transportation and car rental Travel hotel, motel, cruise lines. Much of the information given for manufacturing production systems MPSs is relevant to the service production system.
This is particularly true in industries, such as the food restaurant industry, in which customer service is as important as quality and on-time delivery. Table provides a short list of service industries. A collection of operations and processes used to obtain a desired product s or component s is called a manufacturing system. The manufacturing system is therefore the design or arrangement of the manufacturing processes.
Control of a system applies to overall control of the whole, not merely of the individual processes or equipment. The entire manufacturing system must be controlled in order to schedule and control production, inventory levels, product quality, output rates, and so forth. For example, injection molding, die casting, progressive stamping, milling, arc welding, painting, assembling, testing, pasteurizing, homogenizing, and annealing are commonly called processes or manufacturing processes.
The term process often implies a sequence of steps, processes, or operations for production of goods and services, as shown in Figure , which shows the processes to manufacture an Olympic-type medal. A machine tool is an assembly of related mechanisms on a frame or bed that together produce a desired result.
Generally, motors, controls, and auxiliary devices are included. Cutting tools and workholding devices are considered separately. A machine tool may do a single process e. Machine sizes vary from a tabletop drill press to a ton forging press. A station is a location or area where a production worker performs tasks or his job. A job is a group of related operations and tasks performed at one station or series of stations in cells.
For example, the job at a final assembly station may consist of four tasks: 1. Attach carburetor. Connect gas line. Connect vacuum line. Connect accelerator rod. The job of a turret lathe a semiautomatic machine operator may include the following operations and tasks: load, start, index and stop, unload, inspect. The operators job may also include setting up the machine i. Other machine operations include drilling, reaming, facing, turning, chamfering, and knurling. The operator can run more than one machine or service at more than one station.
The terms job and station have been carried over to unmanned machines.
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A job is a group of related operations generally performed at one station, and a station is a position or location in a machine or process where specific operations are performed. A simple machine may have only one station. Complex machines can be composed of many stations. The job at a station often includes many simultaneous operations, such as drill all five holes by multiple spindle drills. In the planning of a job, a process plan is often developed by the engineer to describe how a component is made using a.
Very high pressure is applied by a press at very slow rates. The blank plastically deforms into the medal. This press Abrasive is called hot metering isostatic pressing. Abrasive feed line Additional finishing steps in the process include chemical etching; gold or silver plating; packaging.
FIGURE The manufacturing process for making Olympic medals has many steps or operations, beginning with design and including die making. FIGURE The component called a pinion shaft is manufactured by a sequence of operations to produce various geometric surfaces. The engineer figures out the sequence and selects the tooling to perform the steps. So, for example, the part shown in Figure is produced by a set of machining operations. This information can be embedded in a CNC program, as shown in Figure Typical manual machine operations are loading and unloading. Operations can be divided into suboperational elements.
For example, loading is made up of picking up a part, placing part in jig, closing jig. However, suboperational elements will not be discussed here. Operations categorized by function are: 1. Materials handling and transporting: change in position of the product 2. Processing: change in volume and quality, including assembly and disassembly; can include packaging 3. Packaging: special processing; may be temporary or permanent for shipping 4. Inspecting and testing: comparison to the standard or check of process behavior 5.
Storing: time lapses without further operations. These basic operations may occur more than once in some processes, or they may sometimes be omitted. Remember, it is the manufacturing processes that change the value and quality of the materials. Defective processes produce poor quality or scrap.
DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Engineering 10th - DeGarmo, Kohser, Black
Other operations may be necessary but do not, in general, add value, whereas operations performed by machines that do material processing usually do add value. They usually alter or modify the product-in-process without tool contact. Heat treating, curing, galvanizing, plating, finishing, chemical cleaning, and painting are examples of treatments. Treatments usually add value to the part. These processes are difficult to include in cells because they often have long cycle times, are hazardous to the workers health, or are unpleasant to be around because of high heat or chemicals.
They are often done in large tanks or furnaces or rooms. The cycle time for these processes may dictate the cycle times for the entire system. These operations also tend to be material specific. Many manufactured products are given decorative and protective surface treatments that control the finished appearance.
A customer may not buy a new vehicle because it has a visible defect in the chrome bumper, although this defect will not alter the operation of the car. Tools are used to hold, cut, shape, or form the unfinished product. Common hand tools include the saw, hammer, screwdriver, chisel, punch, sandpaper, drill, clamp, file, torch, and grindstone. Basically, machines are mechanized versions of such hand tools and are called cutting tools. Some examples of tools for cutting are drill bits, reamers, single-point turning tools, milling cutters, saw blades, broaches, and grinding wheels.
Noncutting tools for forming include extrusion dies, punches, and molds. Tools also include workholders, jigs, and fixtures. These tools and cutting tools are generally referred to as the tooling, which usually must be considered purchased separate from machine tools. Cutting tools wear and fail and must be periodically replaced before parts are ruined. The workholding devices must be able to locate and secure the workpieces during processing in a repeatable, mistake-proof way.
Common examples of measuring tools are rulers, calipers, micrometers, and gages. Precision devices that use laser optics or vision systems coupled with sophisticated electronics are becoming commonplace. Vision systems and coordinate measuring machines are becoming critical elements for achieving superior quality. An example will help. Compare an electric typewriter with a computer that does word processing. The electric typewriter is flexible.
It types whatever words are wanted in whatever order. It can type in Pica, Elite, or Orator, but the font disk or ball that has the appropriate type size on it has to be changed according to the size and face of type wanted. The computer can do all of this but can also, through its software, do italics, darken the words, vary the spacing to justify the right margin, plus many other functions. It checks immediately for incorrect spelling and other defects like repeated words. The software system provides a signal to the hardware to flash the word so that the operator will know something is wrong and can make an immediate correction.
If the system were designed to prevent the typist from typing repeated words, then this would be a poka-yoke, a defect prevention. Defect prevention is better than immediate defect detection and correction. Ultimately, the system should be able to forecast the probability. This means that the typist would have to be removed from the process loop, perhaps by having the system type out what it is told convert oral to written directly.
Poka-yoke devices and source inspection techniques are keys to designing manufacturing systems that produce superior-quality products at low cost. Products result from manufacture. Manufacture also includes conversion processes such as refining, smelting, and mining. Products can be manufactured by fabricating or by processing.
Fabricating is the manufacture of a product from pieces such as parts, components, or assemblies. Individual products or parts can also be fabricated. Separable discrete items such as tires, nails, spoons, screws, refrigerators, or hinges are fabricated. Processing is also used to refer to the manufacture of a product by continuous means, or by a continuous series of operations, for a specific purpose.
Continuous items such as steel strip, beverages, breakfast foods, tubing, chemicals, and petroleum are processed. Many processed products are marketed as discrete items, such as bottles of beer, bolts of cloth, spools of wire, and sacks of flour. Separable discrete products, both piece parts and assemblies, are fabricated in a plant, factory, or mill, for instance, a textile or rolling mill.
Products that flow liquids, gases, grains, or powders are processed in a plant or refinery. The continuous-process industries such as petroleum and chemical plants are sometimes called processing industries or flow industries. To a lesser extent, the terms fabricating industries and manufacturing industries are used when referring to fabricators or manufacturers of large products composed of many parts, such as a car, a plane, or a tractor.
Manufacturing often includes continuousprocess treatments such as electroplating, heating, demagnetizing, and extrusion forming. Construction or building is making goods by means other than manufacturing or processing in factories. Construction is a form of project manufacturing of useful goods like houses, highways, and buildings. The public may not consider construction as manufacturing because the work is not usually done in a plant or factory, but it can be. There is a company in Delaware that can build a custom house of any design in its factory, truck it to the building site, and assemble it on a foundation in two or three weeks.
Agriculture, fisheries, and commercial fishing produce real goods from useful labor. Lumbering is similar to both agriculture and mining in some respects, and mining should be considered processing. Processes that convert the raw materials from agriculture, fishing, lumbering, and mining into other usable and consumable products are also forms of manufacturing.
Every component has a shape that is bounded by various types of surfaces of certain sizes that are spaced and arranged relative to each other. Consequently, a component is manufactured by producing the surfaces that bound the shape. Surfaces may be: 1. Plane or flat Cylindrical external or internal Conical external or internal Irregular curved or warped. Figure illustrates how a shape can be analyzed and broken up into these basic bounding surfaces. Parts are manufactured by using a set or sequence of processes that will either 1 remove portions of a rough block of material bar stock, casting, forging so as to produce and leave the desired bounding surface, or 2 cause material to form into a stable configuration that has the required bounding surfaces casting, forging.
The part design must be analyzed to determine what materials will provide the desired properties, including mating to other components, and what processes can best be employed to obtain the end product at the most reasonable cost. This is often the job of the manufacturing engineer. The products are brought into reality through the processing or fabrication of materials.
In this capacity designers are a key factor in the material selection and manufacturing procedure. A design engineer, better than any other person, should know what the design is to accomplish, what assumptions can be made about service loads and requirements, what service environment the product must withstand, and what appearance the final product is to have. To meet these requirements, the material s to be used must be selected and specified. In most cases, to utilize the material and to enable the product to have the desired form, the designer knows that certain manufacturing processes will have to be employed.
In many instances, the selection of a specific material may dictate what processing must be used. On the other hand, when certain processes must be used, the design may have to be modified in order for the process to be utilized effectively and economically. Certain dimensional sizes can dictate the processing, and some processes require certain sizes for the parts going into them. In converting the design into reality, many decisions must be made. In most instances, they can be made most effectively at the design stage. Design for manufacturing uses the knowledge of manufacturing processes, and so the design and manufacturing engineers should work together to integrate design and manufacturing activities.
Manufacturing engineers select and coordinate specific processes and equipment to be used, or supervise and manage their use. Some design special tooling is used so that standard machines can be utilized in producing specific products. These engineers must have a broad knowledge of manufacturing processes and material behavior so that desired operations can be done effectively and efficiently without overloading or damaging machines and without adversely affecting the materials being processed.
Although it is not obvious, the most hostile environment the material may ever encounter in its lifetime is the processing environment. Industrial or manufacturing engineers are responsible for manufacturing systems design or layout of factories. They must take into account the interrelationships of the design and the properties of the materials that the machines are going to process as well as the interreaction of the materials and processes.
The choice of machines and equipment used in manufacturing and their arrangement in the factory are also design tasks. Materials engineers devote their major efforts to developing new and better materials.
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They, too, must be concerned with how these materials can be processed and with the effects that the processing will have on the properties of the materials. Although their roles may be quite different, it is apparent that a large proportion of engineers must concern themselves with the interrelationships of materials and manufacturing processes.
As an example of the close interrelationship of design, materials selection, and the selection and use of manufacturing processes, consider the common desk stapler. Staplers typically consist of 10 to 12 parts and some rivets and pins. Only by giving a great deal of attention to design, selection of materials, selection of processes, selection of equipment used for manufacturing tooling , and utilization of personnel could such a result be achieved.
The stapler is a relatively simple product, yet the problems involved in its manufacture are typical of those that manufacturing industries must deal with. The elements. For example, suppose the designer calls for the component that holds the staples to be a metal part. Will it be a machined part rather than a formed part? Entirely different processes and materials need to be specified depending on the choice. Or, if a part is to be changed from metal to plastic, then a whole new set of fundamentally different materials and processes would need to come into play.
Such changes would also have a significant impact on cost. Three of these are: 1. Worldwide competition for global products and their manufacture 2. High-tech manufacturing or advanced technology 3. New manufacturing systems designs, strategies, and management Worldwide global competition is a fact of manufacturing life, and it will get stronger in the future. The goods you buy today may have been made anywhere in the world.
The second aspect, advanced manufacturing technology, usually refers to new machine tools or processes with computer-aided manufacturing. Producing machine tools is a small industry with enormous leverage. Improved processes lead to better components and more durable goods. However, the new technology is often purchased from companies that have developed the technology, so this approach is important but may not provide a unique competitive advantage if your competitors can also buy the technology, provided that they have the capital.
Some companies develop their own unique process technology and try to keep it proprietary as long as they can. A good example of unique process technology is the numerical control machine tool, shown in Figure and discussed in Chapter Computer-controlled machines are now common to the factory floor. The third change and perhaps the real key to success in manufacturing is to build a manufacturing system that can deliver, on time to the customer, super-quality goods at the lowest possible cost in a flexible way. This change reflects an effort to improve markedly the methodology by which goods are produced rather than simply upgrading the manufacturing process technology.
Manufacturing system design is discussed extensively in the last section of the book, and we recommend that students examine this material closely after they have gained a working knowledge of materials and processes. The next section provides a brief introduction to manufacturing system designs.